; ForgeRock, Inc. Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2021
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Except for the policies updated below, including the accounting policy for leases that was updated below as a result of the Company adopting the FASB Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) Leases (“Topic 842”) on January 1, 2021, there have been no significant changes from the significant accounting policies disclosed in Note 2 of the “Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements” of the audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2020 which are included in our prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) on September 17, 2021 (the “Final Prospectus”).

Stock-based compensation

All stock-based compensation to employees, including the purchase rights issued under the Company's 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the “2021 ESPP”), is based on the fair value of the awards on the date of grant. This cost is recognized as an expense following the straight-line attribution method, over the requisite service period, for stock options, restricted stock units (RSUs) and restricted stock, and over the offering period, for the purchase rights issued under the 2021 ESPP. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model to measure the fair value of its stock options and the purchase rights issued under the 2021 ESPP. The fair value of the RSUs is determined using the fair value of the Company’s Class A common stock on the date of grant.

The Company accounts for equity awards issued to employees and non-employees based on the fair value of the award, determined using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. Prior to the IPO, the fair value of the Company’s common stock was determined by the estimated fair value of the Company’s common stock at the time of grant. Prior to the IPO, the fair value of the shares of common stock underlying stock options had been established by our board of directors, which was responsible for these estimates, and had been based in part upon a valuation provided by a third-party valuation firm. Because there had been no public market for our common stock, our board of directors considered this independent valuation and other factors, including, but not limited to, revenue growth, the current status of the technical and commercial success of our operations, our financial condition, the stage of development and competition to establish the fair value of our common stock at the time of grant of the option. After the IPO, the Company uses the market closing price of its Class A common stock on the date of grant for the fair value.
Short-term investments

Short-term investments consist primarily of money market funds, U.S. treasury and agency securities, commercial paper, corporate debt and asset-backed securities. The Company’s policy generally requires investments to be investment grade, with the primary objective of minimizing the potential risk of principal loss. The Company classifies its short-term investments as available-for-sale securities at the time of purchase and reevaluates such classification at each balance sheet date. The Company has classified its investments as current based on the nature of the investments and their availability for use in current operations.

Available-for-sale debt securities are recorded at fair value each reporting period. Unrealized gains and losses on these investments are reported as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) on the condensed consolidated balance sheets until realized. Interest income is reported within other, net in the condensed consolidated statements of operations. The Company periodically evaluates its investments to assess whether those with unrealized loss positions are other-than-temporarily impaired. The Company considers various factors in determining whether to recognize an impairment charge, including the length of time the investment has been in a loss position, the extent to which the fair value is less than the Company’s cost basis, and the financial condition and near-term prospects of the investee. Realized gains and losses are determined based on the specific identification method and are reported in Other, net in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company did not consider any of its investments to be other-than-temporarily impaired as of September 30, 2021.

JOBS Act Accounting Election

As an emerging growth company (“EGC”), the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (“JOBS Act”) allows the Company to delay adoption of new or revised accounting pronouncements applicable to public companies until such pronouncements are applicable to private companies (that is, those that have not had a Securities Act registration statement declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”)). The Company may elect to use this extended transition period under the JOBS Act until such time as the Company is no longer considered to be an EGC. The adoption dates for recently adopted accounting standards discussed below reflect this election, where applicable.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016-02 requires that a lessee recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from operating leases. A lessee should recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use (ROU) asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, a lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. In transition, lessees and lessors are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach.

The Company adopted ASU 2016-02 and related amendments on January 1, 2021, using the optional transition method and recorded an initial adjustment of $5.8 million to operating lease right-of-use assets, $6.5 million to operating lease liabilities and $0.7 million of unamortized deferred rent included in other liabilities in the condensed consolidated balance sheet on January 1, 2021. The Company elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance within Topic 842, which allowed the Company to carry forward the historical lease classification, retain the initial direct costs for any leases that existed prior to the adoption of the standard and not reassess whether any contracts entered into prior to the adoption are leases. The Company also elected to account for lease and non-lease components in its real estate lease agreements as a single lease component in determining lease assets and liabilities. In addition, the Company elected not to recognize the right-of-use assets and liabilities for leases with lease terms of one year or less. The Company did not elect the practical expedient allowing the use-of-hindsight, which would require the Company to reassess the lease term of its leases based on all facts and circumstances through the effective date and did not elect the practical expedient pertaining to land easements as this is not applicable to the current contract portfolio.

As of September 30, 2021, the aggregate balances of lease right-of-use assets and lease liabilities were $4.4 million and $4.6 million, respectively. The standard did not materially affect the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations. The Company will continue to disclose comparative reporting periods prior to January 1, 2021 under the previous accounting guidance, ASC 840 Leases. See Note 7 Leases for further information.