; Document
Exhibit 3.2


AMENDED AND RESTATED BYLAWS OF
FORGEROCK, INC.
(as amended on August 22, 2021, effective upon the completion of the Company’s initial public offering)





TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ARTICLE I - CORPORATE OFFICES
1.1    REGISTERED OFFICE
1.2    OTHER OFFICES
ARTICLE II - MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS
2.1    PLACE OF MEETINGS
2.2    ANNUAL MEETING
2.3    SPECIAL MEETING
2.4    ADVANCE NOTICE PROCEDURES
2.5    NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS
2.6    QUORUM
2.7    ADJOURNED MEETING; NOTICE
2.8    CONDUCT OF BUSINESS
2.9    VOTING
2.10    STOCKHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING
2.11    RECORD DATES
2.12    PROXIES
2.13    LIST OF STOCKHOLDERS ENTITLED TO VOTE
2.14    INSPECTORS OF ELECTION
ARTICLE III - DIRECTORS
3.1    POWERS
3.2    NUMBER OF DIRECTORS
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
(continued)
Page

3.3    ELECTION, QUALIFICATION AND TERM OF OFFICE OF DIRECTORS
3.4    RESIGNATION AND VACANCIES
3.5    PLACE OF MEETINGS; MEETINGS BY TELEPHONE
3.6    REGULAR MEETINGS
3.7    SPECIAL MEETINGS; NOTICE
3.8    QUORUM; VOTING
3.9    BOARD ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING
3.10    FEES AND COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS
3.11    REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS
ARTICLE IV - COMMITTEES
4.1    COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS
4.2    COMMITTEE MINUTES
4.3    MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES
4.4    SUBCOMMITTEES
ARTICLE V - OFFICERS
5.1    OFFICERS
5.2    APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS
5.3    SUBORDINATE OFFICERS
5.4    REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION OF OFFICERS
5.5    VACANCIES IN OFFICES
5.6    REPRESENTATION OF SECURITIES OF OTHER ENTITIES
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
(continued)
Page

5.7    AUTHORITY AND DUTIES OF OFFICERS
ARTICLE VI - STOCK
6.1    STOCK CERTIFICATES; PARTLY PAID SHARES
6.2    SPECIAL DESIGNATION ON CERTIFICATES
6.3    LOST CERTIFICATES
6.4    DIVIDENDS
6.5    TRANSFER OF STOCK
6.6    STOCK TRANSFER AGREEMENTS
6.7    REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS
ARTICLE VII - MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE AND WAIVER
7.1    NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS
7.2    NOTICE TO STOCKHOLDERS SHARING AN ADDRESS
7.3    NOTICE TO PERSON WITH WHOM COMMUNICATION IS UNLAWFUL
7.4    WAIVER OF NOTICE
ARTICLE VIII - INDEMNIFICATION
8.1    INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS IN THIRD PARTY PROCEEDINGS
8.2    INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS IN ACTIONS BY OR IN THE RIGHT OF THE COMPANY
8.3    SUCCESSFUL DEFENSE
8.4    INDEMNIFICATION OF OTHERS
8.5    ADVANCED PAYMENT OF EXPENSES
8.6    LIMITATION ON INDEMNIFICATION
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
(continued)
Page

8.7    DETERMINATION; CLAIM
8.8    NON-EXCLUSIVITY OF RIGHTS
8.9    INSURANCE
8.10    SURVIVAL
8.11    EFFECT OF REPEAL OR MODIFICATION
8.12    CERTAIN DEFINITIONS
ARTICLE IX - GENERAL MATTERS
9.1    EXECUTION OF CORPORATE CONTRACTS AND INSTRUMENTS
9.2    FISCAL YEAR
9.3    SEAL
9.4    CONSTRUCTION; DEFINITIONS
9.5    FORUM SELECTION
ARTICLE X - AMENDMENTS

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BYLAWS OF FORGEROCK, INC.
ARTICLE I - CORPORATE OFFICES
I.1REGISTERED OFFICE
The registered office of ForgeRock, Inc. (the “Company”) shall be fixed in the Company’s certificate of incorporation, as the same may be amended from time to time.
I.2OTHER OFFICES
The Company may at any time establish other offices.
ARTICLE II - MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS
II.1PLACE OF MEETINGS
Meetings of stockholders shall be held at a place, if any, within or outside the State of Delaware, determined by the board of directors of the Company (the “Board of Directors”). The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that a meeting of stockholders shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication as authorized by Section 211(a)(2) of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) or any successor legislation. In the absence of any such designation or determination, stockholders’ meetings shall be held at the Company’s principal executive office.
II.2ANNUAL MEETING
The annual meeting of stockholders shall be held each year. The Board of Directors shall designate the date and time of the annual meeting. At the annual meeting, directors shall be elected and any other proper business, brought in accordance with Section 2.4 of these bylaws, may be transacted. The Board of Directors acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Whole Board may cancel, postpone or reschedule any previously scheduled annual meeting at any time, before or after the notice for such meeting has been sent to the stockholders. For the purposes of these bylaws, the term “Whole Board” shall mean the total number of authorized directorships whether or not there exist any vacancies or other unfilled seats in previously authorized directorships.
II.3SPECIAL MEETING
(a)A special meeting of the stockholders, other than as required by statute, may be called at any time by (i) the Board of Directors acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Whole Board, (ii) the chairperson of the Board of Directors, (iii) the chief executive officer or (iv) the president (in the absence of a chief executive officer), but a special meeting may not be called by any other person or persons and any power of stockholders to call a special meeting of stockholders is specifically denied. The Board of Directors acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the
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Whole Board may cancel, postpone or reschedule any previously scheduled special meeting at any time, before or after the notice for such meeting has been sent to the stockholders.
(b)The notice of a special meeting shall include the purpose for which the meeting is called. Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting by or at the direction of a majority of the Whole Board, the chairperson of the Board of Directors, the chief executive officer or the president. Nothing contained in this Section 2.3(b) shall be construed as limiting, fixing or affecting the time when a meeting of stockholders called by action of the Board of Directors may be held.
II.4ADVANCE NOTICE PROCEDURES
(a)Annual Meetings of Stockholders.
(i)Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors or the proposal of other business to be transacted by the stockholders at an annual meeting of stockholders may be made only (1) pursuant to the Company’s notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto); (2) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors; (3) as may be provided in the certificate of designations for any class or series of preferred stock; or (4) by any stockholder of the Company who (A) is a stockholder of record at the time of giving of the notice contemplated by Section 2.4(a)(ii); (B) is a stockholder of record on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of the annual meeting; (C) is a stockholder of record on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the annual meeting; (D) is a stockholder of record at the time of the annual meeting; and (E) complies with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.4(a).
(ii)For nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting of stockholders by a stockholder pursuant to clause (4) of Section 2.4(a)(i), the stockholder must have given timely notice in writing to the secretary and any such nomination or proposed business must constitute a proper matter for stockholder action. To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be received by the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company no earlier than 8:00 a.m., local time, on the 120th day and no later than 5:00 p.m., local time, on the 90th day prior to the day of the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting of stockholders. However, if no annual meeting of stockholders was held in the preceding year, or if the date of the applicable annual meeting has been changed by more than 25 days from the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, then to be timely such notice must be received by the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company no earlier than 8:00 a.m., local time, on the 120th day prior to the day of the annual meeting and no later than 5:00 p.m., local time, on the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the date of the annual meeting was first made by the Company. In no event will the adjournment, rescheduling or postponement of any annual meeting, or any announcement thereof, commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice as described above. If the number of directors to be elected to the Board of Directors is increased and there is no public announcement naming all of the nominees for director or specifying the size of the increased Board of Directors at least 10 days before the last day that a stockholder may deliver a notice of nomination pursuant to the foregoing provisions, then a stockholder’s notice required by this Section 2.4(a)(ii) will also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for any new positions created by such increase, if it is received by the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company no later than 5:00 p.m., local time, on the 10th day following the day on which such public announcement is first made. “Public announcement” means disclosure in a press release reported by a national news service or
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in a document publicly filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (as amended and inclusive of rules and regulations thereunder, the “1934 Act”).
(iii)A stockholder’s notice to the secretary must set forth:
(1)as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election as a director:
(A)such person’s name, age, business address, residence address and principal occupation or employment; the class and number of shares of the Company that are held of record or are beneficially owned by such person and a description of any Derivative Instruments (defined below) held or beneficially owned thereby or of any other agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any short position or any borrowing or lending of shares), the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss to, or to manage the risk or benefit of share price changes for, or to increase or decrease the voting power of such person; and all information relating to such person that is required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for the contested election of directors, or is otherwise required, in each case pursuant to the Section 14 of the 1934 Act;
(B)such person’s written consent to being named in such stockholder’s proxy statement as a nominee of such stockholder and to serving as a director of the Company if elected;
(C)a reasonably detailed description of any direct or indirect compensatory, payment, indemnification or other financial agreement, arrangement or understanding that such person has, or has had within the past three years, with any person or entity other than the Company (including the amount of any payment or payments received or receivable thereunder), in each case in connection with candidacy or service as a director of the Company (a “Third-Party Compensation Arrangement”); and
(D)a description of any other material relationships between such person and such person’s respective affiliates and associates, or others acting in concert with them, on the one hand, and such stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is made, and their respective affiliates and associates, or others acting in concert with them, on the other hand;
(2)as to any other business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting:
(A)a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting;
(B)the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and, if applicable, the text of any proposed amendment to these bylaws);
(C)the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting;
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(D)any material interest in such business of such stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made, and their respective affiliates and associates, or others acting in concert with them; and
(E)a description of all agreements, arrangements and understandings between such stockholder and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made, and their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert with them, and any other person or persons (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business by such stockholder; and
(3)as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made:
(A)the name and address of such stockholder (as they appear on the Company’s books), of such beneficial owner and of their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert with them;
(B)for each class or series, the number of shares of stock of the Company that are, directly or indirectly, held of record or are beneficially owned by such stockholder, such beneficial owner or their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert with them;
(C)a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding between such stockholder, such beneficial owner or their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert with them, and any other person or persons (including, in each case, their names) in connection with the proposal of such nomination or other business;
(D)a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (including, regardless of the form of settlement, any derivative, long or short positions, profit interests, forwards, futures, swaps, options, warrants, convertible securities, stock appreciation or similar rights, hedging transactions and borrowed or loaned shares) that has been entered into by or on behalf of such stockholder, such beneficial owner or their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert with them, with respect to the Company’s securities (any of the foregoing, a “Derivative Instrument”), or any other agreement, arrangement or understanding that has been made the effect or intent of which is to create or mitigate loss to, manage risk or benefit of share price changes for or increase or decrease the voting power of such stockholder, such beneficial owner or their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert with them, with respect to the Company’s securities;
(E)any rights to dividends on the Company’s securities owned beneficially by such stockholder, such beneficial owner or their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert with them, that are separated or separable from the underlying security;
(F)any proportionate interest in the Company’s securities or Derivative Instruments held, directly or indirectly, by a general or limited partnership in which such stockholder, such beneficial owner or their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert with them, is a general partner or, directly or indirectly, beneficially owns an interest in a general partner of such general or limited partnership;
(G)any performance-related fees (other than an asset-based fee) that such stockholder, such beneficial owner or their respective affiliates or associates or others
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acting in concert with them, is entitled to based on any increase or decrease in the value of the Company’s securities or Derivative Instruments, including, without limitation, any such interests held by members of the immediate family of such persons sharing the same household;
(H)any significant equity interests or any Derivative Instruments in any principal competitor of the Company that are held by such stockholder, such beneficial owner or their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert with them;
(I)any direct or indirect interest of such stockholder, such beneficial owner or their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert with them, in any contract with the Company, any affiliate of the Company or any principal competitor of the Company (in each case, including any employment agreement, collective bargaining agreement or consulting agreement);
(J)a representation and undertaking that the stockholder is a holder of record of stock of the Company as of the date of submission of the stockholder’s notice and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to bring such nomination or other business before the meeting;
(K)a representation and undertaking that such stockholder or any such beneficial owner intends, or is part of a group that intends, to (x) deliver a proxy statement or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the voting power of the Company’s then-outstanding stock required to approve or adopt the proposal or to elect each such nominee; or (y) otherwise solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal or nomination;
(L)any other information relating to such stockholder, such beneficial owner, or their respective affiliates or associates or others acting in concert with them, or director nominee or proposed business that, in each case, would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with the solicitation of proxies in support of such nominee (in a contested election of directors) or proposal pursuant to Section 14 of the 1934 Act; and
(M)such other information relating to any proposed item of business as the Company may reasonably require to determine whether such proposed item of business is a proper matter for stockholder action.
(iv)In addition to the requirements of this Section 2.4, to be timely, a stockholder’s notice (and any additional information submitted to the Company in connection therewith) must further be updated and supplemented (1) if necessary, so that the information provided or required to be provided in such notice is true and correct as of the record date(s) for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of, and to vote at, the meeting and as of the date that is 10 business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment, rescheduling or postponement thereof and (2) to provide any additional information that the Company may reasonably request. Such update and supplement or additional information, if applicable, must be received by the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company, in the case of a request for additional information, promptly following a request therefor, which response must be delivered not later than such reasonable time as is specified in any such request from the Company or, in the case of any other update or supplement of any information, not later than five business days after the record date(s) for the meeting (in the case of any update and supplement required to be made as of the record date(s)), and not later than eight business days prior to the date for
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the meeting or any adjournment, rescheduling or postponement thereof (in the case of the update and supplement required to be made as of 10 business days prior to the meeting or any adjournment, rescheduling or postponement thereof). The failure to timely provide such update, supplement or additional information shall result in the nomination or proposal no longer being eligible for consideration at the meeting.
(b)Special Meetings of Stockholders. Except to the extent required by the DGCL, and subject to Section 2.3(a), special meetings of stockholders may be called only in accordance with the Company’s certificate of incorporation and these bylaws. Only such business will be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as has been brought before the special meeting pursuant to the Company’s notice of meeting. If the election of directors is included as business to be brought before a special meeting in the Company’s notice of meeting, then nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors at such special meeting may be made by any stockholder who (i) is a stockholder of record at the time of giving of the notice contemplated by this Section 2.4(b); (ii) is a stockholder of record on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to notice of the special meeting; (iii) is a stockholder of record on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the special meeting; (iv) is a stockholder of record at the time of the special meeting; and (v) complies with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.4(b). For nominations to be properly brought by a stockholder before a special meeting pursuant to this Section 2.4(b), the stockholder’s notice must be received by the secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company no earlier than 8:00 a.m., local time, on the 120th day prior to the day of the special meeting and no later than 5:00 p.m., local time, on the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the date of the special meeting was first made. In no event will any adjournment, rescheduling or postponement of a special meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice. A stockholder’s notice to the Secretary must comply with the applicable notice requirements of Section 2.4(a)(iii).
(c)Other Requirements.
(i)To be eligible to be a nominee by any stockholder for election as a director of the Company, the proposed nominee must provide to the secretary, in accordance with the applicable time periods prescribed for delivery of notice under Section 2.4(a)(ii) or Section 2.4(b):
(1)a signed and completed written questionnaire (in the form provided by the secretary at the written request of the nominating stockholder, which form will be provided by the secretary within 10 days of receiving such request) containing information regarding such nominee’s background and qualifications and such other information as may reasonably be required by the Company to determine the eligibility of such nominee to serve as a director of the Company or to serve as an independent director of the Company;
(2)a written representation and undertaking that, unless previously disclosed to the Company, such nominee is not, and will not become, a party to any voting agreement, arrangement, commitment, assurance or understanding with any person or entity as to how such nominee, if elected as a director, will vote on any issue;
(3)a written representation and undertaking that, unless previously disclosed to the Company, such nominee is not, and will not become, a party to any Third-Party Compensation Arrangement;
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(4)a written representation and undertaking that, if elected as a director, such nominee would be in compliance, and will continue to comply, with the Company’s corporate governance guidelines as disclosed on the Company’s website, as amended from time to time; and
(5)a written representation and undertaking that such nominee, if elected, intends to serve a full term on the Board of Directors.
(ii)At the request of the Board of Directors, any person nominated by the Board of Directors for election as a director must furnish to the secretary the information that is required to be set forth in a stockholder’s notice of nomination that pertains to such nominee.
(iii)No person will be eligible to be nominated by a stockholder for election as a director of the Company unless nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 2.4. No business proposed by a stockholder will be conducted at a stockholder meeting except in accordance with this Section 2.4.
(iv)The chairperson of the applicable meeting of stockholders will, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a nomination was not made in accordance with the procedures prescribed by these bylaws or that business was not properly brought before the meeting. If the chairperson of the meeting should so determine, then the chairperson of the meeting will so declare to the meeting and the defective nomination will be disregarded or such business will not be transacted, as the case may be.
(v)Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this Section 2.4, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear in person at the meeting to present a nomination or other proposed business, such nomination will be disregarded or such proposed business will not be transacted, as the case may be, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such nomination or business may have been received by the Company and counted for purposes of determining a quorum. For purposes of this Section 2.4, to be considered a qualified representative of the stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or must be authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting, and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting.
(vi)Without limiting this Section 2.4, a stockholder must also comply with all applicable requirements of the 1934 Act with respect to the matters set forth in this Section 2.4, it being understood that (1) any references in these bylaws to the 1934 Act are not intended to, and will not, limit any requirements applicable to nominations or proposals as to any other business to be considered pursuant to this Section 2.4; and (2) compliance with clause (4) of Section 2.4(a)(i) and with Section 2.4(b) are the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations or submit other business (other than as provided in Section 2.4(c)(vii)).
(vii)Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this Section 2.4, the notice requirements set forth in these bylaws with respect to the proposal of any business pursuant to this Section 2.4 will be deemed to be satisfied by a stockholder if (1) such stockholder has submitted a proposal to the Company in compliance with Rule 14a8 under the 1934 Act; and (2) such stockholder’s proposal has been included in a proxy statement that has been prepared by the Company to solicit proxies
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for the meeting of stockholders. Subject to Rule 14a8 and other applicable rules and regulations under the 1934 Act, nothing in these bylaws will be construed to permit any stockholder, or give any stockholder the right, to include or have disseminated or described in the Company’s proxy statement any nomination of a director or any other business proposal.
II.5NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS
Whenever stockholders are required or permitted to take any action at a meeting, a notice of the meeting shall be given which shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, if such date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting, and, in the case of a special meeting, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. Except as otherwise provided in the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be given not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting as of the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting.
II.6QUORUM
The holders of a majority of the voting power of the capital stock of the Company issued and outstanding and entitled to vote, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at all meetings of the stockholders. Where a separate vote by a class or series or classes or series is required, a majority of the voting power of the outstanding shares of such class or series or classes or series, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter, except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.
If, however, such quorum is not present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, then either (a) the chairperson of the meeting, or (b) the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present or represented. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum is present or represented, any business may be transacted that might have been transacted at the original meeting.
II.7ADJOURNED MEETING; NOTICE
When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, unless these bylaws otherwise require, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time, place, if any, thereof, and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken. At the adjourned meeting, the Company may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting. If the adjournment is for more than 30 days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting. If after the adjournment a new record date for stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting, the Board of Directors shall fix a new record date for notice of such adjourned meeting in accordance with Section 213(a) of the DGCL and Section 2.11 of these bylaws, and shall give notice of the adjourned meeting to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date fixed for notice of such adjourned meeting.
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II.8CONDUCT OF BUSINESS
The chairperson of any meeting of stockholders shall determine the order of business and the procedure at the meeting, including such regulation of the manner of voting and the conduct of business and discussion as seem to the chairperson in order. The chairperson of any meeting of stockholders shall be designated by the Board of Directors; in the absence of such designation, the chairperson of the Board of Directors, if any, or the chief executive officer (in the absence of the chairperson of the Board of Directors) or the president (in the absence of the chairperson of the Board of Directors and the chief executive officer), or in their absence any other executive officer of the Company, shall serve as chairperson of the stockholder meeting. The chairperson of any meeting of stockholders shall have the power to adjourn the meeting to another place, if any, date or time, whether or not a quorum is present.
II.9VOTING
The stockholders entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.11 of these bylaws, subject to Section 217 (relating to voting rights of fiduciaries, pledgors and joint owners of stock) and Section 218 (relating to voting trusts and other voting agreements) of the DGCL.
Except as may be otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, each stockholder shall be entitled to one vote for each share of capital stock held by such stockholder.
Except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation, these bylaws or the rules of the stock exchange on which the Company’s securities are listed, in all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of a majority of the voting power of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of the stockholders. Except as otherwise required by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, directors shall be elected by a plurality of the voting power of the shares present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the election of directors. Where a separate vote by a class or series or classes or series is required, in all matters other than the election of directors, the affirmative vote of the majority of the voting power of the outstanding shares of such class or series or classes or series present in person or represented by proxy at the meeting and entitled to vote on the subject matter shall be the act of such class or series or classes or series, except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation, these bylaws or the rules of the stock exchange on which the securities of the Company are listed.
II.10STOCKHOLDER ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING
Subject to the rights of holders of preferred stock of the Company, any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the Company must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Company and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such stockholders.
II.11RECORD DATES
In order that the Company may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors and which record date shall not be more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of such
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meeting. If the Board of Directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination.
If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held.
A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance with the provisions of Section 213 of the DGCL and this Section 2.11 at the adjourned meeting.
In order that the Company may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than 60 days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.
II.12PROXIES
Each stockholder entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders, or such stockholder’s authorized officer, director, employee or agent, may authorize another person or persons to act for such stockholder by proxy authorized by a document or by a transmission permitted by law filed in accordance with the procedure established for the meeting, but no such proxy shall be voted or acted upon after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period. The authorization of a person to act as a proxy may be documented, signed and delivered in accordance with Section 116 of the DGCL; provided that such authorization shall set forth, or be delivered with information enabling the Company to determine, the identity of the stockholder granting such authorization. The revocability of a proxy that states on its face that it is irrevocable shall be governed by the provisions of Section 212 of the DGCL.
II.13LIST OF STOCKHOLDERS ENTITLED TO VOTE
The Company shall prepare, at least 10 days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting; provided, however, if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than 10 days before the meeting date, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the tenth day before the meeting date, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. The Company shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder for any purpose germane to the meeting for a period of at least 10 days prior to the meeting: (a) on a reasonably
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accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (b) during ordinary business hours, at the Company’s principal place of business. In the event that the Company determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the Company may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the Company. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then a list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof, and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then such list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.
II.14INSPECTORS OF ELECTION
Before any meeting of stockholders, the Company shall appoint an inspector or inspectors of election to act at the meeting or its adjournment. The Company may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act.
Such inspectors shall:
(a)ascertain the number of shares outstanding and the voting power of each;
(b)determine the shares represented at the meeting and the validity of proxies and ballots;
(c)count all votes and ballots;
(d)determine and retain for a reasonable period a record of the disposition of any challenges made to any determination by the inspectors; and
(e)certify their determination of the number of shares represented at the meeting, and their count of all votes and ballots.
The inspectors of election shall perform their duties impartially, in good faith, to the best of their ability and as expeditiously as is practical. If there are multiple inspectors of election, the decision, act or certificate of a majority is effective in all respects as the decision, act or certificate of all. Any report or certificate made by the inspectors of election is prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein.
ARTICLE III - DIRECTORS
III.1POWERS
The business and affairs of the Company shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise provided in the DGCL or the certificate of incorporation.
III.2NUMBER OF DIRECTORS
The Board of Directors shall consist of one or more members, each of whom shall be a natural person. Unless the certificate of incorporation fixes the number of directors, the number of directors shall
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be determined from time to time by resolution of a majority of the Whole Board. No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director before that director’s term of office expires.
III.3ELECTION, QUALIFICATION AND TERM OF OFFICE OF DIRECTORS
Except as provided in Section 3.4 of these bylaws, each director, including a director elected to fill a vacancy or newly created directorship, shall hold office until the expiration of the term for which elected and until such director’s successor is elected and qualified or until such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal. Directors need not be stockholders unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws. The certificate of incorporation or these bylaws may prescribe other qualifications for directors.
If so provided in the certificate of incorporation, the directors of the Company shall be divided into three classes.
III.4RESIGNATION AND VACANCIES
Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing or by electronic transmission to the Company. A resignation is effective when the resignation is delivered unless the resignation specifies a later effective date or an effective date determined upon the happening of an event or events. A resignation which is conditioned upon the director failing to receive a specified vote for reelection as a director may provide that it is irrevocable. Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, when one or more directors resign from the Board of Directors, effective at a future date, a majority of the directors then in office, including those who have so resigned, shall have power to fill such vacancy or vacancies, the vote thereon to take effect when such resignation or resignations shall become effective.
Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws or permitted in the specific case by resolution of the Board of Directors, and subject to the rights of holders of Preferred Stock, vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors elected by all of the stockholders having the right to vote as a single class may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director, and not by stockholders. If the directors are divided into classes, a person so chosen to fill a vacancy or newly created directorship shall hold office until the next election of the class for which such director shall have been chosen and until his or her successor shall have been duly elected and qualified.
III.5PLACE OF MEETINGS; MEETINGS BY TELEPHONE
The Board of Directors may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or outside the State of Delaware.
Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, members of the Board of Directors may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.
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III.6REGULAR MEETINGS
Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the Board of Directors.
III.7SPECIAL MEETINGS; NOTICE
Special meetings of the Board of Directors for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by the chairperson of the Board of Directors, the chief executive officer, the president, the secretary or a majority of the Whole Board; provided that the person(s) authorized to call special meetings of the Board of Directors may authorize another person or persons to send notice of such meeting.
Notice of the time and place of special meetings shall be:
(a)delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone;
(b)sent by United States first-class mail, postage prepaid;
(c)sent by facsimile;
(d)sent by electronic mail; or
(e)otherwise given by electronic transmission (as defined in Section 232 of the DGCL),
directed to each director at that director’s address, telephone number, facsimile number, electronic mail address or other contact for notice by electronic transmission, as the case may be, as shown on the Company’s records.
If the notice is (i) delivered personally by hand, by courier or by telephone, (ii) sent by facsimile, (iii) sent by electronic mail or (iv) otherwise given by electronic transmission, it shall be delivered, sent or otherwise directed to each director, as applicable, at least 24 hours before the time of the holding of the meeting. If the notice is sent by United States mail, it shall be deposited in the United States mail at least four days before the time of the holding of the meeting. Any oral notice of the time and place of the meeting may be communicated to the director in lieu of written notice if such notice is communicated at least 24 hours before the time of the holding of the meeting. The notice need not specify the place of the meeting (if the meeting is to be held at the Company’s principal executive office) nor the purpose of the meeting, unless required by statute.
III.8QUORUM; VOTING
At all meetings of the Board of Directors, a majority of the Whole Board shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. If a quorum is not present at any meeting of the Board of Directors, then the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum is present.
The affirmative vote of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which a quorum is present shall be the act of the Board of Directors, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.
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If the certificate of incorporation provides that one or more directors shall have more or less than one vote per director on any matter, except as may otherwise be expressly provided herein or therein and denoted with the phrase “notwithstanding the final paragraph of Section 3.8 of the bylaws” or language to similar effect, every reference in these bylaws to a majority or other proportion of the directors shall refer to a majority or other proportion of the votes of the directors.
III.9BOARD ACTION BY WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT A MEETING
Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may be taken without a meeting if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission. Any person (whether or not then a director) may provide, whether through instruction to an agent or otherwise, that a consent to action will be effective at a future time (including a time determined upon the happening of an event), no later than 60 days after such instruction is given or such provision is made and such consent shall be deemed to have been given for purposes of this Section 3.9 at such effective time so long as such person is then a director and did not revoke the consent prior to such time. Any such consent shall be revocable prior to its becoming effective. After an action is taken, the consent or consents relating thereto shall be filed with the minutes of the proceedings of the Board of Directors, or the committee thereof, in the same paper or electronic form as the minutes are maintained.
III.10FEES AND COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS
Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the Board of Directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors.
III.11REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS
Any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed from office by stockholders of the Company in the manner specified in the certificate of incorporation and applicable law. No reduction of the authorized number of directors shall have the effect of removing any director prior to the expiration of such director’s term of office.
ARTICLE IV - COMMITTEES
IV.1COMMITTEES OF DIRECTORS
The Board of Directors may, by resolution passed by a majority of the Whole Board, designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the Company. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors or in these bylaws, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Company, and may authorize the seal of the Company to be affixed to all papers that may require it; but no such committee shall have the
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power or authority to (a) approve or adopt, or recommend to the stockholders, any action or matter (other than the election or removal of directors) expressly required by the DGCL to be submitted to stockholders for approval, or (b) adopt, amend or repeal any bylaw of the Company.
IV.2COMMITTEE MINUTES
Each committee and subcommittee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings.
IV.3MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES
Meetings and actions of committees and subcommittees shall be governed by, and held and taken in accordance with, the provisions of:
(a)Section 3.5 (place of meetings and meetings by telephone);
(b)Section 3.6 (regular meetings);
(c)Section 3.7 (special meetings and notice);
(d)Section 3.8 (quorum; voting);
(e)Section 3.9 (action without a meeting); and
(f)Section 7.4 (waiver of notice)
with such changes in the context of those bylaws as are necessary to substitute the committee or subcommittee and its members for the Board of Directors and its members. However, (i) the time and place of regular meetings of committees or subcommittees may be determined either by resolution of the Board of Directors or by resolution of the committee or subcommittee; (ii) special meetings of committees or subcommittees may also be called by resolution of the Board of Directors or the committee or the subcommittee; and (iii) notice of special meetings of committees and subcommittees shall also be given to all alternate members who shall have the right to attend all meetings of the committee or subcommittee. The Board of Directors may adopt rules for the government of any committee not inconsistent with the provisions of these bylaws.
Any provision in the certificate of incorporation providing that one or more directors shall have more or less than one vote per director on any matter shall apply to voting in any committee or subcommittee, unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.
IV.4SUBCOMMITTEES
Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, these bylaws or the resolutions of the Board of Directors designating the committee, a committee may create one or more subcommittees, each subcommittee to consist of one or more members of the committee, and delegate to a subcommittee any or all of the powers and authority of the committee.
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ARTICLE V - OFFICERS
V.1OFFICERS
The officers of the Company shall be a president and a secretary. The Company may also have, at the discretion of the Board of Directors, a chairperson of the Board of Directors, a vice chairperson of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a chief financial officer or treasurer, one or more vice presidents, one or more assistant vice presidents, one or more assistant treasurers, one or more assistant secretaries and any such other officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of these bylaws. Any number of offices may be held by the same person.
V.2APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS
The Board of Directors shall appoint the officers of the Company, except such officers as may be appointed in accordance with the provisions of Section 5.3 of these bylaws, subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment.
V.3SUBORDINATE OFFICERS
The Board of Directors may appoint, or empower any officer to appoint, such other officers as the business of the Company may require. Each of such officers shall hold office for such period, have such authority, and perform such duties as are provided in these bylaws or as determined from time to time by the Board of Directors, any duly authorized committee or subcommittee thereof or by any officer who has been conferred such power of determination.
V.4REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION OF OFFICERS
Subject to the rights, if any, of an officer under any contract of employment, any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by the Board of Directors or, for the avoidance of doubt, any duly authorized committee or subcommittee thereof or by any officer who has been conferred such power of removal.
Any officer may resign at any time by giving notice, in writing or by electronic transmission, to the Company. Any resignation shall take effect at the date of the receipt of that notice or at any later time specified in that notice. Unless otherwise specified in the notice of resignation, the acceptance of the resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective. Any resignation is without prejudice to the rights, if any, of the Company under any contract to which the officer is a party.
V.5VACANCIES IN OFFICES
Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Company shall be filled by the Board of Directors or as provided in Section 5.3.
V.6REPRESENTATION OF SECURITIES OF OTHER ENTITIES
The chairperson of the Board of Directors, the chief executive officer, the president, any vice president, the treasurer, the secretary or assistant secretary of this Company or any other person authorized by the Board of Directors or the chief executive officer, the president or a vice president, is authorized to vote, represent and exercise on behalf of this Company all rights incident to any and all
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shares or other securities of any other entity or entities, and all rights incident to any management authority conferred on the Company in accordance with the governing documents of any entity or entities, standing in the name of this Company, including the right to act by written consent. The authority granted herein may be exercised either by such person directly or by any other person authorized to do so by proxy or power of attorney duly executed by such person having the authority.
V.7AUTHORITY AND DUTIES OF OFFICERS
Each officer of the Company shall have such authority and perform such duties in the management of the business of the Company as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors, any duly authorized committee or subcommittee thereof or by any officer who has been conferred such power of designation, and, to the extent not so provided, as generally pertain to such office, subject to the control of the Board of Directors.
ARTICLE VI - STOCK
VI.1STOCK CERTIFICATES; PARTLY PAID SHARES
The shares of the Company shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of its stock shall be uncertificated shares. Any such resolution shall not apply to shares represented by a certificate until such certificate is surrendered to the Company. Unless otherwise provided by resolution of the Board of Directors, every holder of stock represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate signed by, or in the name of, the Company by any two officers of the Company representing the number of shares registered in certificate form. Any or all of the signatures on the certificate may be a facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate has ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Company with the same effect as if such person were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue. The Company shall not have power to issue a certificate in bearer form.
The Company may issue the whole or any part of its shares as partly paid and subject to call for the remainder of the consideration to be paid therefor. Upon the face or back of each stock certificate issued to represent any such partly-paid shares, or upon the books and records of the Company in the case of uncertificated partly-paid shares, the total amount of the consideration to be paid therefor and the amount paid thereon shall be stated. Upon the declaration of any dividend on fully-paid shares, the Company shall declare a dividend upon partly-paid shares of the same class, but only upon the basis of the percentage of the consideration actually paid thereon.
VI.2SPECIAL DESIGNATION ON CERTIFICATES
If the Company is authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, then the powers, the designations, the preferences and the relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of the certificate that the Company shall issue to represent such class or series of stock; provided, however, that, except as otherwise provided in Section 202 of the DGCL, in lieu of the foregoing requirements, there may be set forth on the face or back of the certificate that the Company shall issue to represent such class or series of
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stock, a statement that the Company will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Within a reasonable time after the issuance or transfer of uncertificated stock, the registered owner thereof shall be given a notice, in writing or by electronic transmission, containing the information required to be set forth or stated on certificates pursuant to this Section 6.2 or Sections 156, 202(a), 218(a) or 364 of the DGCL or with respect to this Section 6.2 a statement that the Company will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights. Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, the rights and obligations of the holders of uncertificated stock and the rights and obligations of the holders of certificates representing stock of the same class and series shall be identical.
VI.3LOST CERTIFICATES
Except as provided in this Section 6.3, no new certificates for shares shall be issued to replace a previously issued certificate unless the latter is surrendered to the Company and cancelled at the same time. The Company may issue a new certificate of stock or uncertificated shares in the place of any certificate theretofore issued by it, alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, and the Company may require the owner of the lost, stolen or destroyed certificate, or such owner’s legal representative, to give the Company a bond sufficient to indemnify it against any claim that may be made against it on account of the alleged loss, theft or destruction of any such certificate or the issuance of such new certificate or uncertificated shares.
VI.4DIVIDENDS
The Board of Directors, subject to any restrictions contained in the certificate of incorporation or applicable law, may declare and pay dividends upon the shares of the Company’s capital stock. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the Company’s capital stock, subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation. The Board of Directors may set apart out of any of the funds of the Company available for dividends a reserve or reserves for any proper purpose and may abolish any such reserve.
VI.5TRANSFER OF STOCK
Transfers of record of shares of stock of the Company shall be made only upon its books by the holders thereof, in person or by an attorney duly authorized, and, if such stock is certificated, upon the surrender of a certificate or certificates for a like number of shares, properly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignation or authority to transfer.
VI.6STOCK TRANSFER AGREEMENTS
The Company shall have power to enter into and perform any agreement with any number of stockholders of any one or more classes of stock of the Company to restrict the transfer of shares of stock of the Company of any one or more classes owned by such stockholders in any manner not prohibited by the DGCL.
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VI.7REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS
The Company:
(a)shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends and notices and to vote as such owner; and
(b)shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of another person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.
ARTICLE VII - MANNER OF GIVING NOTICE AND WAIVER
VII.1NOTICE OF STOCKHOLDERS’ MEETINGS
Notice of any meeting of stockholders shall be given in the manner set forth in the DGCL.
VII.2NOTICE TO STOCKHOLDERS SHARING AN ADDRESS
Except as otherwise prohibited under the DGCL, without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders given by the Company under the provisions of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws shall be effective if given by a single written notice to stockholders who share an address if consented to by the stockholders at that address to whom such notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by the stockholder by written notice to the Company. Any stockholder who fails to object in writing to the Company, within 60 days of having been given written notice by the Company of its intention to send the single notice, shall be deemed to have consented to receiving such single written notice. This Section 7.2 shall not apply to Sections 164, 296, 311, 312 or 324 of the DGCL.
VII.3NOTICE TO PERSON WITH WHOM COMMUNICATION IS UNLAWFUL
Whenever notice is required to be given, under the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, to any person with whom communication is unlawful, the giving of such notice to such person shall not be required and there shall be no duty to apply to any governmental authority or agency for a license or permit to give such notice to such person. Any action or meeting which shall be taken or held without notice to any such person with whom communication is unlawful shall have the same force and effect as if such notice had been duly given. In the event that the action taken by the Company is such as to require the filing of a certificate under the DGCL, the certificate shall state, if such is the fact and if notice is required, that notice was given to all persons entitled to receive notice except such persons with whom communication is unlawful.
VII.4WAIVER OF NOTICE
Whenever notice is required to be given under any provision of the DGCL, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, a written waiver, signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to notice. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the
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express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the stockholders need be specified in any written waiver of notice or any waiver by electronic transmission unless so required by the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws.
ARTICLE VIII - INDEMNIFICATION
VIII.1INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS IN THIRD PARTY PROCEEDINGS
Subject to the other provisions of this Article VIII, the Company shall indemnify, to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as now or hereinafter in effect, any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (a “Proceeding”) (other than an action by or in the right of the Company) by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Company, or is or was a director or officer of the Company serving at the request of the Company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such Proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe such person’s conduct was unlawful. The termination of any Proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that such person’s conduct was unlawful.
VIII.2INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS IN ACTIONS BY OR IN THE RIGHT OF THE COMPANY
Subject to the other provisions of this Article VIII, the Company shall indemnify, to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as now or hereinafter in effect, any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed Proceeding by or in the right of the Company to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of the Company, or is or was a director or officer of the Company serving at the request of the Company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such Proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company; except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Company unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.
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VIII.3SUCCESSFUL DEFENSE
To the extent that a present or former director or officer (for purposes of this Section 8.3 only, as such term is defined in Section 145(c)(1) of the DGCL) of the Company has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding described in Section 8.1 or Section 8.2, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith. The Company may indemnify any other person who is not a present or former director or officer of the Company against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person to the extent he or she has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any suit or proceeding described in Section 8.1 or Section 8.2, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein.
VIII.4INDEMNIFICATION OF OTHERS
Subject to the other provisions of this Article VIII, the Company shall have power to indemnify its employees and agents, or any other persons, to the extent not prohibited by the DGCL or other applicable law. The Board of Directors shall have the power to delegate to any person or persons identified in subsections (1) through (4) of Section 145(d) of the DGCL the determination of whether employees or agents shall be indemnified.
VIII.5ADVANCED PAYMENT OF EXPENSES
Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by an officer or director of the Company in defending any Proceeding shall be paid by the Company in advance of the final disposition of such Proceeding upon receipt of a written request therefor (together with documentation reasonably evidencing such expenses) and an undertaking by or on behalf of the person to repay such amounts if it shall ultimately be determined that the person is not entitled to be indemnified under this Article VIII or the DGCL. Such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by former directors and officers or other employees and agents of the Company or by persons serving at the request of the Company as directors, officers, employees or agents of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise may be so paid upon such terms and conditions, if any, as the Company deems appropriate. The right to advancement of expenses shall not apply to any Proceeding (or any part of any Proceeding) for which indemnity is excluded pursuant to these bylaws, but shall apply to any Proceeding (or any part of any Proceeding) referenced in Section 8.6(b) or 8.6(c) prior to a determination that the person is not entitled to be indemnified by the Company.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, unless otherwise determined pursuant to Section 8.8, no advance shall be made by the Company to an officer of the Company (except by reason of the fact that such officer is or was a director of the Company, in which event this paragraph shall not apply) in any Proceeding if a determination is reasonably and promptly made (a) by a vote of the directors who are not parties to such Proceeding, even though less than a quorum, or (b) by a committee of such directors designated by the vote of the majority of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (c) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, that facts known to the decision-making party at the time such determination is made demonstrate clearly and convincingly that such person acted in bad faith or in a manner that such person did not believe to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Company.
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VIII.6LIMITATION ON INDEMNIFICATION
Subject to the requirements in Section 8.3 and the DGCL, the Company shall not be obligated to indemnify any person pursuant to this Article VIII in connection with any Proceeding (or any part of any Proceeding):
(a)for which payment has actually been made to or on behalf of such person under any statute, insurance policy, indemnity provision, vote or otherwise, except with respect to any excess beyond the amount paid, subject to any agreement with respect to subrogation entered into by the Company;
(b)for an accounting or disgorgement of profits pursuant to Section 16(b) of the 1934 Act, or similar provisions of federal, state or local statutory law or common law, if such person is held liable therefor (including pursuant to any settlement arrangements);
(c)for any reimbursement of the Company by such person of any bonus or other incentive-based or equity-based compensation or of any profits realized by such person from the sale of securities of the Company, as required in each case under the 1934 Act (including any such reimbursements that arise from an accounting restatement of the Company pursuant to Section 304 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”), or the payment to the Company of profits arising from the purchase and sale by such person of securities in violation of Section 306 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act), if such person is held liable therefor (including pursuant to any settlement arrangements);
(d)initiated by such person, including any Proceeding (or any part of any Proceeding) initiated by such person against the Company or its directors, officers, employees, agents or other indemnitees, unless (i) the Board of Directors authorized the Proceeding (or the relevant part of the Proceeding) prior to its initiation, (ii) the Company provides the indemnification, in its sole discretion, pursuant to the powers vested in the Company under applicable law, (iii) otherwise required to be made under Section 8.7 or (iv) otherwise required by applicable law; or
(e)if prohibited by applicable law.
VIII.7DETERMINATION; CLAIM
If a claim for indemnification or advancement of expenses under this Article VIII is not paid in full within 90 days after receipt by the Company of the written request therefor, the claimant shall be entitled to an adjudication by a court of competent jurisdiction of his or her entitlement to such indemnification or advancement of expenses. The Company shall indemnify such person against any and all expenses that are actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with any action for indemnification or advancement of expenses from the Company under this Article VIII, to the extent such person is successful in such action, and to the extent not prohibited by law. In any such suit, the Company shall, to the fullest extent not prohibited by law, have the burden of proving that the claimant is not entitled to the requested indemnification or advancement of expenses.
VIII.8NON-EXCLUSIVITY OF RIGHTS
The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article VIII shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or
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advancement of expenses may be entitled under the certificate of incorporation or any statute, bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office. The Company is specifically authorized to enter into individual contracts with any or all of its directors, officers, employees or agents respecting indemnification and advancement of expenses, to the fullest extent not prohibited by the DGCL or other applicable law.
VIII.9INSURANCE
The Company may purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Company, or is or was serving at the request of the Company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the Company would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of the DGCL.
VIII.10SURVIVAL
The rights to indemnification and advancement of expenses conferred by this Article VIII shall continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such a person.
VIII.11EFFECT OF REPEAL OR MODIFICATION
A right to indemnification or to advancement of expenses arising under a provision of the certificate of incorporation or a bylaw shall not be eliminated or impaired by an amendment to or repeal or elimination of the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws after the occurrence of the act or omission that is the subject of the civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding for which indemnification or advancement of expenses is sought, unless the provision in effect at the time of such act or omission explicitly authorizes such elimination or impairment after such action or omission has occurred.
VIII.12CERTAIN DEFINITIONS
For purposes of this Article VIII, references to the “Company” shall include, in addition to the resulting company, any constituent company (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had power and authority to indemnify its directors, officers, employees or agents, so that any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of such constituent company, or is or was serving at the request of such constituent company as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under the provisions of this Article VIII with respect to the resulting or surviving company as such person would have with respect to such constituent company if its separate existence had continued. For purposes of this Article VIII, references to “other enterprises” shall include employee benefit plans; references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to an employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the Company” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the Company which imposes duties on, or involves services by, such director, officer, employee or agent with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and
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beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the Company” as referred to in this Article VIII.
ARTICLE IX - GENERAL MATTERS
IX.1EXECUTION OF CORPORATE CONTRACTS AND INSTRUMENTS
Except as otherwise provided by law, the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws, the Board of Directors may authorize any officer or officers, or agent or agents, or employee or employees, to enter into any contract or execute any document or instrument in the name of and on behalf of the Company; such authority may be general or confined to specific instances. Unless so authorized or ratified by the Board of Directors or within the agency power of an officer, agent or employee, no officer, agent or employee shall have any power or authority to bind the Company by any contract or engagement or to pledge its credit or to render it liable for any purpose or for any amount.
IX.2FISCAL YEAR
The fiscal year of the Company shall be fixed by resolution of the Board of Directors and may be changed by the Board of Directors.
IX.3SEAL
The Company may adopt a corporate seal, which shall be adopted and which may be altered by the Board of Directors. The Company may use the corporate seal by causing it or a facsimile thereof to be impressed or affixed or in any other manner reproduced.
IX.4CONSTRUCTION; DEFINITIONS
Unless the context requires otherwise, the general provisions, rules of construction, and definitions in the DGCL shall govern the construction of these bylaws. Without limiting the generality of this provision, the singular number includes the plural, the plural number includes the singular, and the term “person” includes a corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, and a natural person. Any reference in these bylaws to a section of the DGCL shall be deemed to refer to such section as amended from time to time and any successor provisions thereto.
IX.5FORUM SELECTION
Unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or, if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, another State court in Delaware or the federal district court for the District of Delaware) shall, to the fullest extent permitted by law, be the sole and exclusive forum for (a) any derivative action or proceeding brought on behalf of the Company, (b) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any director, stockholder, officer or other employee of the Company to the Company or the Company’s stockholders, (c) any action arising pursuant to any provision of the DGCL or the certificate of incorporation or these bylaws (as either may be amended from time to time) or (d) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine, except for, as to each of (a) through (d) above, any claim as to which such court determines that there is an indispensable party not subject to the jurisdiction of such court (and the indispensable party does not consent to the personal jurisdiction of such court within
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10 days following such determination), which is vested in the exclusive jurisdiction of a court or forum other than such court or for which such court does not have subject matter jurisdiction.
Unless the Company consents in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the federal district courts of the United States of America shall be the sole and exclusive forum for the resolution of any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, against any person in connection with any offering of the Company’s securities, including, without limitation and for the avoidance of doubt, any auditor, underwriter, expert, control person, or other defendant.
Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in any security of the Company shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to the provisions of this Section 9.5. This provision shall be enforceable by any party to a complaint covered by the provisions of this Section 9.5. For the avoidance of doubt, nothing contained in this Section 9.5 shall apply to any action brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the 1934 Act or any successor thereto.
ARTICLE X - AMENDMENTS
These bylaws may be adopted, amended or repealed by the stockholders entitled to vote; provided, however, that the affirmative vote of the holders of at least 66 2/3% of the total voting power of outstanding voting securities, voting together as a single class, shall be required for the stockholders of the Company to alter, amend or repeal, or adopt any bylaw inconsistent with, the following provisions of these bylaws: Article II, Section 3.1, Section 3.2, Section 3.4 and Section 3.11 of Article III, Article VIII, Section 9.5 of Article IX or this Article X (including, without limitation, any such Article or Section as renumbered as a result of any amendment, alteration, change, repeal, or adoption of any other bylaw). The Board of Directors acting pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Whole Board shall also have the power to adopt, amend or repeal bylaws; provided, however, that a bylaw amendment adopted by stockholders which specifies the votes that shall be necessary for the election of directors shall not be further amended or repealed by the Board of Directors.
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